Controlled substances

There exist four schedules:
1. High risk drugs - Schedules I and II;
2. Medium Risk drugs - Schedule III;
3. Precursors/substaneces frecuently used in drugs manufacturing - Schedule IV.

Schedule I: plants, substances and preparations containing forbidden psychotropic and narcotic substances, without any recognised interest for medicine;
Schedule II: plants, substances and preparations containing forbidden psychotropic and narcotic substances with a recognised interest for medicine, subject to a strict control;
Schedule III: plants, substances and preparations containing forbidden psychotropic and narcotic substances with a recognised interest for medicine, subject to control.

Drug use and possession

It is prohibited to use any of the nationally controlled substances without medical prescription although there is not punishment specified for drug use per se.

Drug possession, cultivation or production, for personal use is punishable by 6 months to 2 years' imprisonment if the drugs belong to the risk category (schedule III), and 2 to 5 years imprisonment if they are high risk category (Schedules I and II).

Drug possession not classed as for personal use will be punished as for trafficking.

Trafficking and drug-related crime

Cultivation, production, manufacture, experimentation, extraction, preparation, transformation, provision, sale, procurement and purchase, dealing, delivery under any title, transmitting, transportation, are all considered as trafficking offences.

Trafficking operations of risk drugs have a punisment of inprisonment of 3 to 15 years and prohibition of some civil rights. When it is related to high risk drugs the punishment consists of 10 to 20 years' imprisonment and prohibition of some civil rights.

When without medical necessity a physician prescribes a high risk drug, could be punished by 1 to 5 years' imprisonment.

The use of public premises, houses or any other place whit access to the public aming to facilitate the use of illicit drugs is punished with imprisonment from 3 to 5 years and prohibition of some civil rights.

Precursors

Unlawful trade, import, export, production, manufacture, provision, supply, sale, transport, delivery, shipment, marketing, purchase, procurement, synthesis, extraction, test, mediation activities with the purpose of using them in illicit cultivation, producing, manufacture or other else obtaining the illicit drugs is punished by a prison sentence ranging from 3 to 10 years and the prohibition of some rights.

Harm reduction programs

Needle and Syringe Programmes (NSP): 3 operational NSP sites, such as fixed sites, vending machines, pharmacy-based NSP sites and mobile NSPs operating from a vehicle or through outreach workers.

Opium Substitution Treatment (OST) based on methadone and buprenorphine are available, including in prisons.

Drug consumption room: 0

Tobacco

The legal age for buying cigarettes is 18 although there are not smoking age restrictions. Smoking is permitted in public spaces such as clubs, bars, discos and restaurants but it is banned in shopping malls, hypermarkets, public transport, hospitals and schools.

Alcohol

It is illegal to serve or sell alcohol to minors. The legal age for drinking is 18. Drinking is legal in some public spaces, including trains and sidewalks although it is illegal in parks, hospitals, airports and during certain events like strikes and public meetings. It is illegal to drive a car after drinking any amount of alcohol.