Ketamine Educational Resources

Ketamine, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexan-1-one, is a dissociative sedative with analgesic and anaesthetic properties, now being investigated as an antidepressant, alone and as part of ketamine-assisted therapy. Discovered in 1962 by Calvin L. Stevens, and first tested on humans in 1964, ketamine was approved for medical use by the USA in 1970 and remains widely used to this  …


Addiction in Psychiatry

Drug usage is currently extremely high and it is particularly prevalent amongst those suffering from mental health conditions. Despite this, many healthcare workers are not trained to recognise the signs of substance misuse and are often unaware of how to treat this distinctive patient group appropriately.  Psychiatric patients who use drugs are much less likely  …


Supervised Injection Facilities

Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are known by many names including Safe Injection Facilities, Overdose Prevention Centres, and Drug Consumption Rooms. There are subtle nuances between these amenities, but they all function to provide safe spaces for people to consume controlled drugs under the supervision of trained professionals who can save lives if overdoses occur. Drug-related  …


DMT and Ayahuasca Educational Resources

Ayahuasca has been used as a medicine in Mesoamerican ceremonies for thousands of years, but the primary psychoactive compound, DMT, was not synthesised until 1931. DMT was studied during the wave of psychedelic research in the 1950s and 60s until research was banned in 1971 by the Convention of Psychotropic Substances. Ayahuasca was not included  …


Medical MDMA Educational Resources

MDMA (3,4-Methyl​enedioxy​methamphetamine) was first synthesised in 1912 by chemists at the pharmaceutical company, Merck in Germany. In 1985, MDMA was placed in schedule 1, resulting in no research being conducted into the potential therapeutic applications of MDMA between 1985 – 2000. However, since then, MDMA has been included in over 5000 academic articles and administered to  …


Medical Psilocybin Educational Resources

The psychotropic effects of Psilocybe mushrooms were largely unknown in the West until the 1950s, despite evidence that they had a long history of indigenous use in Central and South America, and possibly other parts of the world. Western civilisations had very little knowledge of this relatively ‘new‘ psychotropic and subsequently banned research into its  …